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Difference between 7Ps and 4Ps marketing

The difference between the 7Ps and 4Ps of marketing lies in their comprehensiveness. While the 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) are the traditional marketing mix elements, the 7Ps include additional factors like People, Processes, and Physical evidence. The 7Ps offer a more holistic approach, considering aspects beyond the product and its promotion, such as customer experience and service delivery.

Ever found yourself caught in the whirlwind of marketing strategies, wondering about the secret sauce behind successful campaigns? The marketing mix, a term rooted in the very essence of marketing, has undergone a fascinating evolution over the years. Initially, the 4Ps—Product, Price, Place, and Promotion—stood as the pillars of this strategic framework.

However, as the marketing evolved, so did the need for an expanded perspective, leading to the introduction of the 7Ps model.  In this article we want to point out how the 7Ps model differentiate itself from the former 4Ps.

The Timeless 4Ps: Foundations of Marketing Brilliance

In the annals of marketing history, the 4Ps have reigned supreme since their inception in 1960 by E. Jerome McCarthy. These pillars—Product, Price, Place, and Promotion—have been the guiding lights for marketers, shaping how products and services are conceptualized, priced, distributed, and promoted. The concept is simple yet powerful, emphasizing the need for a well-rounded approach to bring a product into the market. Consider it as the classic recipe for marketing success, where each "P" contributes to the final dish that is a compelling brand presence.

Product: Crafting the Essence of Appeal

The first "P" in the marketing mix, Product, is akin to the canvas upon which a brand paints its narrative. It encompasses not just the tangible item but also its features, design, and overall identity.

Think of Apple's sleek iPhones or Nike's innovative sportswear—products that transcend functionality and become symbols of lifestyle. In a world driven by consumer choices, a product's success hinges on its ability to resonate with the target audience, addressing their needs and aspirations.

The art lies in creating not just a commodity but an experience that customers willingly embrace.

Price: Striking the Harmonious Balance

Moving on to the second "P" in the marketing symphony—Price. Here, the challenge is to determine the sweet spot that aligns with both customer expectations and the company's profitability goals.

Pricing is a delicate dance, where setting it too high might alienate budget-conscious consumers, while pricing it too low might raise questions about quality.

Consider Zara's affordable yet trendy fashion, where the price point harmonizes with the target market's desire for both style and savings. The 4Ps model underscores the importance of not just selling a product but also strategically positioning it in the market through pricing.

Place: Navigating the Channels of Accessibility

Place, the third "P," takes us on a journey through the distribution channels, exploring how a product reaches its intended audience. It's not just about being on the shelves; it's about being where your customers are.

Amazon, with its seamless online marketplace, has redefined the concept of place, offering unparalleled accessibility. The physical and virtual landscapes become avenues for brands to connect with consumers, and mastering this aspect ensures that the product is not just present but available where it matters most.

Promotion: Weaving the Tapestry of Awareness

The final act in the 4Ps symphony—Promotion. This is where the spotlight shines on creating awareness, sparking desire, and ultimately driving action. Promotion is the storyteller, using various mediums such as advertising, public relations, and social media to weave a narrative that captivates the audience.

Think of Coca-Cola's timeless holiday commercials, transcending the beverage to become a symbol of joy and celebration. In the 4Ps era, effective promotion wasn't just about selling a product; it was about selling an experience, a lifestyle, or even an emotion.

The Evolving 7Ps: Unveiling a Holistic Approach

In the late '70s, the marketing world recognized the need for an update, giving rise to the 7Ps model. Booms & Bitner, in 1981, expanded the traditional 4Ps by incorporating three new elements—People, Process, and Physical Evidence.

These additions aimed to infuse a human-centric and experiential dimension into the marketing mix, acknowledging the evolving dynamics of consumer behavior and market trends.

People: Elevating the Human Touch

The first addition, People, acknowledges that every interaction between a customer and a company's representative leaves an imprint. Whether it's the friendly barista at Starbucks or the helpful customer service agent resolving an issue, people become an integral part of the brand experience.

Southwest Airlines, with its emphasis on exceptional customer service, exemplifies how the People element contributes to a positive brand image.

Process: Streamlining Efficiency for Excellence

Process delves into the efficiency of the systems and procedures that facilitate the delivery of a product or service. Often overlooked, this "P" ensures that the customer's journey, from purchase to post-sales support, is seamless.

Starbucks' streamlined process of taking orders, preparing beverages, and maintaining a cozy ambiance is a testament to how an efficient process contributes to a consistent and positive brand experience.

Physical Evidence: Building Trust through Tangibility

The final addition, Physical Evidence, introduces tangible clues that reinforce a customer's trust in the brand. It includes everything from packaging and branding to the overall environment where a service is delivered.

Luxury brands like Rolex strategically use physical evidence, from meticulous craftsmanship to exclusive packaging, to create a perception of exclusivity and quality. This tangible evidence becomes a silent ambassador, reassuring customers about the value they are investing in.

Striking the Right Chord: Integrating 4Ps and 7Ps

Businesses face the challenge of choosing between the classic 4Ps and the extended 7Ps. Striking a harmonious balance becomes paramount, aligning the marketing mix with the unique needs and goals of the business. The 4Ps, with their focus on product development, pricing strategy, distribution channels, and promotion, form the foundational elements that resonate well with businesses offering standard products.

On the flip side, the 7Ps inject a human touch, emphasizing the importance of people, efficient processes, and tangible evidence. This extended model proves invaluable for businesses dealing in specialized services or highly differentiated products, where customer experience and after-sales support play pivotal roles in shaping satisfaction.

Adapting to the Digital Symphony: The 7Ps in a Tech-Driven Era

As technology continues to redefine the way businesses operate, the 7Ps model proves its relevance. The rise of eCommerce and digital transformation has introduced new variables that impact the way consumers discover and purchase products.

The 7Ps, with their additional focus on People, Process, and Physical Evidence, offer a framework that seamlessly transitions from a company-centric to a consumer-centric perspective.

In this era of empowered and discerning consumers, the 7Ps guide businesses in creating meaningful online experiences that go beyond transactional interactions.

So, why do some marketers believe that the 7 Ps of marketing are more relevant?

Here are a few reasons:

Customer-Centric Approach: By considering people as one of the key Ps, the 7 Ps of marketing shift the focus from product-centric to customer-centric. In this highly competitive market, understanding and meeting customer needs and preferences is crucial for success.

Emphasis on the Experience: With the inclusion of physical evidence and process, the 7 Ps highlight the significance of customer experience. Customers don't just buy products or services; they buy experiences. By paying attention to these elements, marketers can create memorable experiences that set their brand apart.

Adaptability: The rise of technology and online platforms has considerably transformed the way businesses operate. The 7 Ps' broader scope allows marketers to adapt to the digital landscape more effectively. For example, new channels and touchpoints can be considered in the "place" element, while the "process" element can address digital automation and customer support.

Despite the compelling arguments for the 7 Ps of marketing, the traditional 4 Ps still hold value in many marketing contexts.

Here's why they still matter:

Simplicity and Simplicity: One of the strengths of the 4 Ps is their simplicity. They provide a straightforward framework that is easy to understand and apply. For businesses with limited resources or those just starting their marketing journey, the simplicity of the 4 Ps can be invaluable.

Historical Relevance: The 4 Ps have stood the test of time and have been used successfully by countless businesses across industries. Many marketers are familiar with this framework and have experience working with it. Thus, it can provide a common language and foundation for marketing efforts.

Product and Price Focus: In certain industries, especially those centered on physical products or pricing strategies, the product and price elements may be of primary importance. The traditional 4 Ps allow marketers to focus on these key areas without getting overwhelmed by additional factors.

Advantages of the 7 Ps over the 4 Ps

  • Comprehensive Customer Analysis: The inclusion of the "people" element in the 7 Ps framework highlights the importance of understanding your target audience on a deeper level. By considering factors such as demographics, psychographics, and behavioral patterns, marketers can tailor their marketing efforts to resonate with specific customer segments and enhance overall effectiveness.
  • Focus on Service Industries: The original 4 Ps were primarily designed for product-oriented businesses. However, with the rise of service industries, the 7 Ps better accommodate the unique challenges and requirements of these organizations. The addition of elements like process and physical evidence allows service-based companies to address issues such as service delivery, customer support, and creating a tangible experience.
  • Long-Term Relationship Building: Customer loyalty is crucial for sustained success. The 7 Ps emphasize the importance of building strong relationships with customers through superior customer experiences and personalized interactions. By focusing on people, process, and physical evidence, businesses can create positive associations that foster long-term loyalty and advocacy.
  • Holistic Approach: The 7 Ps provide a more holistic view of the marketing strategy by considering various touchpoints and factors that contribute to the overall customer experience. This comprehensive approach helps businesses identify gaps or areas for improvement and ensures a more integrated and aligned marketing strategy.

Examples of the 7 Ps in Action:


The ecommerce giant incorporates the 7 Ps in its marketing strategy effectively. The "product" element is fulfilled with a wide range of offerings, including physical products, digital content, and services like Amazon Prime. The "people" element is addressed through personalized recommendations and customer service. For "place," Amazon has implemented an extensive distribution network and convenient online platform. In terms of "process," their seamless order fulfillment and delivery system have created a differentiated experience. Physical evidence is achieved through branded packaging and a user-friendly website interface.


Starbucks is renowned for its careful execution of the 7 Ps. Beyond the quality coffee products ("product"), Starbucks pays exceptional attention to creating an inviting atmosphere and personalized interactions with their customers ("people" and "physical evidence"). The strategic location of their stores and accessibility through mobile ordering and drive-thru options demonstrates their consideration for "place." Their streamlined ordering process, efficient service, and emphasis on consistent quality ensure a smooth customer experience ("process").


Apple's marketing success can be attributed to its adoption of the 7 Ps. The brand consistently delivers innovative and high-quality products ("product") that resonate with their target audience. Their emphasis on user experience and customer support ("people") fosters strong brand loyalty. Apple's strategically placed stores and online platform contribute to the convenient accessibility ("place"). The process of purchasing, setting up, and using Apple products is designed to be intuitive and hassle-free. The sleek design and packaging of their products serve as powerful "physical evidence."

Emerging Trends in the Marketing Mix: Beyond 4 Ps and 7 Ps

The traditional marketing mix has grown to encompass more than the conventional 4 Ps and the extended 7 Ps. Let's explore some emerging trends that are reshaping the way we approach the elements of marketing.

Digitalization and Data Analytics: Beyond "Place" and "Promotion"

The digital revolution has turned "place" into a dynamic concept. With e-commerce, social media, and mobile apps, customers interact with brands from various touchpoints. Moreover, data analytics has empowered businesses to customize their "promotion" strategies based on individual preferences and behaviors. Understanding these trends is vital to remain competitive.

Purpose-Driven Marketing: The New "Product" and "People"

Modern consumers expect brands to stand for more than just products and services. Incorporating a strong sense of purpose, social responsibility, and ethical practices into your offerings and corporate culture can elevate your brand's identity. This aligns with the newer interpretation of "people," which emphasizes community and shared values.

Augmented Reality (AR) and Interactive Experiences: Transforming "Physical Evidence"

While "physical evidence" traditionally referred to tangible elements, AR and virtual experiences are adding a new layer to this concept. Businesses are now creating immersive and interactive experiences that bridge the gap between the physical and digital worlds, offering customers a deeper engagement and emotional connection.

Agile Marketing and Continuous Improvement: Redefining "Process"

In the fast-paced digital era, marketing processes need to be agile and adaptable. Continuous improvement methodologies, such as Lean and Six Sigma, are being applied to marketing to enhance efficiency, optimize customer journeys, and eliminate bottlenecks. This dynamic approach transforms the concept of "process."

Voice Search and Conversational AI: Expanding "Promotion"

The rise of voice search and conversational AI has shifted the way brands engage with customers. "Promotion" has extended beyond traditional advertising to include optimizing content for voice search, developing chatbots for personalized interactions, and creating voice-responsive experiences that reflect the changing ways consumers search and interact.

Personalization at Scale: The Evolution of "Price"

Personalization is no longer limited to recommendations on e-commerce sites. Advances in technology allow businesses to offer tailored pricing models and incentives based on individual preferences and behaviors. Dynamic pricing algorithms and subscription-based models are transforming the traditional concept of "price."

Navigating the Seas of Digital Marketing Mix

Digital marketing mix strategies encompass paid, owned, and earned media, providing a roadmap for businesses to achieve their marketing goals.

Paid media, including PPC and influencer marketing, facilitates visibility.

Owned media, such as websites and social pages, offers controlled spaces for content dissemination.

Earned media, through customer stories and social media shares, amplifies brand presence organically.

The Verdict: Embracing Versatility for Marketing Success

In conclusion, the timeless 4Ps and the evolved 7Ps represent two sides of the same coin, offering businesses versatile tools to navigate the complexities of marketing.

While the 4Ps lay the foundation, addressing core aspects of product, pricing, distribution, and promotion, the 7Ps infuse a deeper understanding of human interactions, streamlined processes, and tangible evidence.

The key lies in adapting the marketing mix to the specific needs of the business, recognizing that in a world of constant change, a harmonious blend of classic and extended principles paves the way for enduring success.

As businesses continue to script their marketing narratives, the symphony of 4Ps and 7Ps resonates as a timeless composition, evolving with the cadence of consumer expectations and technological advancements.


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